stuff about spatiality
I. The Spatial Perspective A. Maps: the cartographic tradition has always been unique to geography. B. Scale 1. Global/Regional/Local 2. Interaction across scales C. Location 1. Absolute Location: latitude and longitude coordinates 2. Relative Location: location in relation to other places 3. Site vs. Situation a. Site: actual place and its physical characteristics b. Situation: external reference or context of the place D. Distance 1. Absolute Distance: measured in a standard metric 2. Relative Distance: measured in time or economics E. Direction 1. Absolute Direction: North, South, East, West 2. Relative Direction: more colloquial, i.e. "the deep south," or "the far east" II. Maps in Human Geography A. Geographic Information Systems and GIScience 1. "GIS's are simultaneously the telescope, the microscope, the computer, and the Xerox machine of regional analysis and synthesis of spatial data." Ron Abler. 2. GIScience involves research emerging from "...the generic issues that surround the use of GIS technology, impded its sucessful implementation, or emerge from an understanding of its potential capabilities." Michael Goodchild. B. Maps and place attributes 1. Cultural and Physical attributes 2. Structured place attributes/spatial distribution a. density: points/unit area b. linear, clustered, or dispersed arrangements 3. Interaction among places a. accessibility: characterisitc of a spot (i.e. the Netherlands rail system) b. connectivity: the characteristics that fuse and hold places together c. First law of Geography: "everything is related to everything else, but relationships are stronger when ther are near to one another." Waldo Tobler C. Maps and Environmental Issues 1. Environmental pollution (risk studies) 2. Human-Environment interaction (maps of deforestation in the Amazon) 3. Remote Sensing 4. Global Positioning System (GPS) D. Maps and Human Mobility --Volume (i.e. migration systems) use arrows and line thickness to indicate volume and direction or outmigration probabilities plotted on a contour map E. Depicting Regions on Maps 1. Criteria and attributes 2. Formal Regions 3. Perceptual Regions 4. Functional Regions 5. Hierarchical Regions F. Maps in the Mind 1. Helpful for understanding human behavior 2. Culturally influenced and subjective 3. Mental maps (James and Colleen's maps) 4. Environmental Perception III. Insights of Geography A. Places have location, direction, and distance with respect to other places B. Scale is important--places may be large or small C. A place has both physical structure and cultural content D. The characteristics of places develop and change over time E. Places interact with other places F. The content of places is rationally structured G. Places may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences IV. Map Projections A. Perpetual problem of projecting a spherical surface onto a planar surface --scale: map units/units in the real world B. Properties of the globe grid: 1. All meridians are of equal length; eah is one half the length of the equator 2. All meridians converge at the poles and are true north-south lines 3. All lines of latitude (parallels) are parallel to each other and the equator 4. Parallels decrease in length as one nears the poles 5. Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles 6. The scale on the surface of the globe is the same in every direction C. Geometrical Projections 1. Graticule is transferred to geometric shape (plane, cone, and cylinder) and shape is cut and flattened 2. Orthographic projections: light source is at infinity 3. Gnomonic projections: light source is at the center of the sphere 4. Stereographic projections: light source is at antipode D. Mathematical Projections 1. Emphasize and preserve elements of a globe grid that perspective projections cannot. 2. Map Distortions: a. Equal area maps preserve proportional size but distort shape b. Conformal maps preserve true shape and directionality for small areas c. Equi-distant maps correctly represent true great arc distances between 2 points on maps but distance between other points is distorted d. Azimuthal maps preserve directionality when direction is radiating from one central point 3. All maps will be distorted, must decide what it is you want preserved and choose map accordingly.
Human Settlements -- Central Place Theory
I. Cities and Technology A. Technology causes growth and transition B. John Borchant's Evolutionary Epochs: 1. Sail-Wagon (1790-1830)--Eastern Seaboard 2. Iron Horse (1830-1870)--The Train, leads to macro settlements 3. Steel-Rail (1870-1920) a. Industrial Revolution b. Strong in the Northeast c. Distance between places matters less d. Some suburbanization at this point (for those who can afford it) 4. Auto-Air-Amenity (1920-1970) a. Greater connectivity between places b. Increasing suburbanization c. Amenities start driving locational decisions 5. High-Technology (1970-?) --Telecommunications --"Armoured Train" painting by Gino Severini--movement in futurist art, predicts the fast-paced life of cities II. Keith Clarke's Urban Growth Model III. Central Place Theory A. Definitions: 1. Centrality: amount of draw to a particular place 2. Threshold: minimum population for normal profits 3. Range: distance consumer is willing to travel to purchase a product B. Assumptions 1. Uniform spatial distribution of population income 2. Isotropic transport surface 3. Consumers will patronize nearest market 4. No excess profits (range = threshold)-- hexagonal pattern C. Higher order cities have higher order services --large market in the middle contains very high order functions that require a large market area D. Relax Assumptions: 1. Population income variation--wealthy vs. non-wealty areas, wealthy areas do not usually need as large of a threshold 2. Variation in transport surfaces 3. Consumer Behavior/Individual Preferences 4. Profits E. Applications to Retail and settlement_systems 1. Equal Distribution/Patterning of Space (i.e. video stores) 2. Do cities of similar size have approximately equal spacing? F. Christaller and Central Place Theory 1. Functional Structure 2. CBD at center, then central city, then suburbs IV. Urban Ecology: Classic Models A. Concentric Zone: Burgess in the 1920's B. Sector Model: Hoyt in the 1930's 1. Do not see concentric zones when you look at the land 2. Sectors: Industry, high rent near recreation/retail C. Multiple Nuclei: Harris and Ulman in the 1940's --Example: Los Angeles--all kinds of zones, quite partitioned D. Urban Realms Model --a CBD, but multiple suburbs that have suburban downtowns, also, a "New Downtown" outside of the CBD V. Urban Renewal and Gentrification --"Yuppy" movement back into downtowns--higher-income, single, or no children couples living in suburban downtowns or "New Downtown" --Gentrification: the rehabilitation of deteriorated inner-city housing with favorable locations relative to the CBD